Accelerometer - MPU 6050 and the I2C communication protocol


1. Introduction
The I2C serial communication protocol (cotents are re-complied based on the contents in the following links:
http://www.circuitbasics.com/basics-of-the-i2c-communication-protocol/

I2C combines the best features of SPI and UARTs. With I2C, you can connect multiple slaves to a single master (like SPI) and you can have multiple masters controlling single, or multiple slaves. This is really useful when you want to have more than one microcontroller logging data to a single memory card or displaying text to a single LCD. Like UART communication, I2C only uses two wires to transmit data between devices:



SDA (Serial Data) – The line for the master and slave to send and receive data.
SCL (Serial Clock) – The line that carries the clock signal.

I2C is a serial communication protocol, so data is transferred bit by bit along a single wire (the SDA line). Like SPI, I2C is synchronous, so the output of bits is synchronized to the sampling of bits by a clock signal shared between the master and the slave. The clock signal is always controlled by the master.



With I2C, data is transferred in messages. Messages are broken up into frames of data. Each message has an address frame that contains the binary address of the slave, and one or more data frames that contain the data being transmitted. The message also includes start and stop conditions, read/write bits, and ACK/NACK bits between each data frame:



Start Condition: The SDA line switches from a high voltage level to a low voltage level before the SCL line switches from high to low.
Stop Condition: The SDA line switches from a low voltage level to a high voltage level after the SCL line switches from low to high.
Address Frame: A 7 or 10 bit sequence unique to each slave that identifies the slave when the master wants to talk to it.
Read/Write Bit: A single bit specifying whether the master is sending data to the slave (low voltage level) or requesting data from it (high voltage level).
ACK/NACK Bit: Each frame in a message is followed by an acknowledge/no-acknowledge bit. If an address frame or data frame was successfully received, an ACK bit is returned to the sender from the receiving device.

ADDRESSING
I2C doesn’t have slave select lines like SPI, so it needs another way to let the slave know that data is being sent to it, and not another slave. It does this by addressing. The address frame is always the first frame after the start bit in a new message. The master sends the address of the slave it wants to communicate with to every slave connected to it. Each slave then compares the address sent from the master to its own address. If the address matches, it sends a low voltage ACK bit back to the master. If the address doesn’t match, the slave does nothing and the SDA line remains high.

READ/WRITE BIT
The address frame includes a single bit at the end that informs the slave whether the master wants to write data to it or receive data from it. If the master wants to send data to the slave, the read/write bit is a low voltage level. If the master is requesting data from the slave, the bit is a high voltage level.

THE DATA FRAME
After the master detects the ACK bit from the slave, the first data frame is ready to be sent. The data frame is always 8 bits long, and sent with the most significant bit first. Each data frame is immediately followed by an ACK/NACK bit to verify that the frame has been received successfully. The ACK bit must be received by either the master or the slave (depending on who is sending the data) before the next data frame can be sent.

After all of the data frames have been sent, the master can send a stop condition to the slave to halt the transmission. The stop condition is a voltage transition from low to high on the SDA line after a low to high transition on the SCL line, with the SCL line remaining high.

STEPS OF I2C DATA TRANSMISSION

1. The master sends the start condition to every connected slave by switching the SDA line from a high voltage level to a low voltage level before switching the SCL line from high to low. The master sends each slave the 7 or 10 bit address of the slave it wants to communicate with, along with the read/write bit:



Each slave compares the address sent from the master to its own address. If the address matches, the slave returns an ACK bit by pulling the SDA line low for one bit. If the address from the master does not match the slave’s own address, the slave leaves the SDA line high.



The master sends (Write Request) or receives (Read Request) the data frame:



After each data frame has been transferred, the receiving device returns another ACK bit to the sender to acknowledge successful receipt of the frame:



To stop the data transmission, the master sends a stop condition to the slave by switching SCL high before switching SDA high:



Because I2C uses addressing, multiple slaves can be controlled from a single master. With a 7 bit address, 128 (27) unique address are available. Using 10 bit addresses is uncommon, but provides 1,024 (210) unique addresses. To connect multiple slaves to a single master, wire them like this, with 5k-20k Ohm pull-up resistors connecting the SDA and SCL lines to Vcc:



ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

2. Implement acceleration measurement using the Arduino UNO and the MPU6050 Accelerometer/Gyroscope
2.1 Accelerometer only

In the data sheet of the microcontroller, go to the page for 'pin configurations', indentify the two pins for the I2C communication:





Turn the dial of the multimeter to Continuity Test mode (). It will likely share a spot on the dial with one or more functions, usually resistance (Ω). With the test probes separated, the multimeter’s display may show OL and Ω.

If the two spots you probe using the multimeter gives you a beap sound, it means the two spots are electrically connected.



In data sheet of the microcontroller, find the chapter that describes the TWI (Two Wire Interface) protocol:



The address of the device is a 7-bit binary number 0110 100x, if you ground AD0, the address of the device will be 0110 1000.





You do not need to connect the 'INT', 'XDA', and 'XCL' pins on the MPU6050 to your Arduino board.

Download the data sheet and the register map of the MPU6050, make register configuration (settings) accordingly before the data is being collected.



Define the range of the accelerations that may be applied to the sensor. How many 'g'.



Must make according configurations to translate the digital data into 'How Many g'.






I masked the configuration code for the ACCEL_CONFIG register and also masked the operation that traslates the digital data into 'How Many g'.





Task 1: Complete the hardware connection of your Arduino board and the MPU6050. Complete the code above, run the program on your Arduino and generate figures that show accelerations on the X, Y, and Z axis separately. (three figures, X only, Y only, and Z only).

In the following video, I mannually shaked my sensor at the X (blue), Y (red), and Z (green) axises.



2.2 Gyroscope only

The gyroscope on the MPU6050 is different from the large-scale gyroscope:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyroscope

It uses Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, or MEMS to implement the gyroscope for angular speed measurement.

Configure the GYRO_CONFIG register:



Pick up the possible range for your specific application:








Task 2: Complete the code above, run the program on your Arduino and generate figures that show angles on the X, Y, and Z axis separately. (three figures, X only, Y only, and Z only).



My demonstration shows the X, Y, and Z angles at the same monitor at the same time.